March 1, 2017 year, English newspaper the guardian ran an interesting article about the auction or a Petri dish in which Alexander Fleming saw the penicillin. Petri dish is a glass, which placed bacteriologists agar-agar, very favourable Wednesday for bacteria. One of these bacteria (very toxic) called Staphylococcus, studied in year 1928 British scientist Alexander Fleming.
Besides its irrepressible curiosity and passion for research, Fleming was distinguished by great carelessness: he never has layered things in places, and his laboratory was just dangerous, everywhere were flasks and test tubes with reagents, and sit down on anything. Senior colleagues have repeatedly expressed surprise and censure Flemingu about this unprecedented untidiness, but it looks like he is not very excited.
Studying wounded soldiers during the first world war, he noticed and published evidence that antiseptics are not able to completely kill the germs in wounds, as many surgeons. Fleming even thought the use of antiseptics dead-end method because they weaken natural defenses.
Over the years, Fleming tried to find a substance that stimulates the immune system and helping the organism to cope with infection.
Summer 1928 year Fleming went on vacation for the entire month of August. Of course, when traveling, Fleming and not think clean up in his laboratory. Coming to work at the beginning of September, he found that in one cup with cultures of fungi have appeared, and there present colonies of staphylococci were killed, while in other cups, in which the mold is not start, staphylococci did not die. Who destroyed the entire colony of microbes? It turns out the mold spores that are accidentally caught in a Petri dish. In the mold, her Latin nazvanie’Penicillium notatum ‘ Fleming and saw the image of the future of medicine called “penicillin”.
This same mold 90-year-olds in the Petri dish and was sold at auction, no less-for $ 14000. In the mold of course no value was not, but mouldy Petri dish was in a glass vessel, where the great scientist in his own hand wrote: “Cup, who created penicillin”.
In this cup of Fleming, modestly considered their opening chance, saw a shrine. He liked to send gifts with pieces of old mold famous people, in particular, the auction Organizer named Pope Pius XII and actress Marlene Dietrich.
About what happened next after the birth of the idea of “the mold is a drug “.
In 1929 year Fleming in one of British magazines published an article about its discovery. But from plesnevogo fungus to medicines “penicillin” was not so easy to get. The first penicillin was produced by microorganisms. Get it in pure form for a long time. Only in the years 1940-41 British, bacteriologist Howard Florey and biochemist Ernst Chain developed a technology to produce pure penicillin on an industrial scale. In 1945 year Flemingu, Flory and Chejnu was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or medicine “for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases”.
Penicillin can be generated from different types of moulds, for example, Russian Penicillin was created on the basis of the fungus Penicillium crustosum. Today all drugs, inhibiting the growth of microorganisms or cause their deaths, called antibiotics. The group includes antibiotics and penicillin with a loud title “antibiotic”. You can enumerate the instances of use of penicillin: thousands of thousands of lives saved. This is the case, but Fleming warned still need proper application of penicillin.
Abuse of doses, abuse for children has caused such unpleasant consequences as the propensity to some functional diseases, immunity to simple medicines, etc. A friend began to turn into an enemy. Friendship is always easier to lose than return.
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