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What are the hormones?

The hormone – is an intermediate between the endocrine glands and systems, providing the metabolic processes in the human body.

By the endocrine glands include the thyroid, pancreas, adrenal glands, sex organs, the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus. Each generates one glands, usually several biologically active substances, called hormones.

Hormones are released into the blood and lymph, and spread throughout the body, ensuring that it is very important functions: protection against microbes, normal growth of bone tissue, normal sleep, and so on.

Today we are aware of dozens of hormones produced by the glands of internal secretion of insulin, prolactin, glucagon, triiodothyronine, calcitonin, growth hormone (growth hormone), cortisol, adrenaline … have been well studied hormones produced by the sex glands: estrogen – the female sex hormone, testosterone – the male sex hormone, estradiol, progesterone.

Recently a lot of talk about hormones called serotonin and melatonin.

The hormone serotonin is produced in large quantities during the acute sense of pleasure and joy. His dubbed “the hormone of happiness.” In the normal amount of serotonin present in the body of any healthy, cheerful person. It provides a good mood. The well-known winter depression due to a lack of serotonin.

The hormone melatonin is closely associated with the hormone serotonin. Under the influence of sunlight is one of the amino acid tryptophan in the body recycles serotonin. At night while sleeping in the pineal gland pineal gland in the human mind serotonin is converted into melatonin. Then melatonin enters the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. The amount of melanin produced in the pineal gland depends on the sleep time (maximum melatonin falls on the period between midnight and five o’clock in the morning) and the degree of brightness of the room in which the sleeper is: strong sunlight reduces the synthesis of melatonin. If we sleep during the day, then you need to trick the brain and create darkness, wearing a blindfold. Otherwise, melatonin is not formed.

The number of hours of sleep more than 7 – 8, we can not increase the amount of synthesized melatonin. The role of melatonin in the body is extremely high. He is considered responsible for the aging process. With age, the amount of melatonin decreases the body’s aging is accelerated, the skin decreases the oxidation resistance of the environment with oxygen. Oxidation of the skin can be compared to about yellowing with time sheets book: oxygen oxidizes the organic substances contained in the paper.

In conclusion, I want to say a few words about the founders of science for the study of hormones.

Getting laid in 1885, English physician T. Addison. You can then call the Frenchman Claude Bernard who studied the secret or isolation of the endocrine glands. Another French doctor S. Brown-Sequard has shown that the treatment of certain diseases associated with inadequate function of the endocrine glands, can be produced with the help of extracts from animal glands.

It is interesting that the term hormone itself appeared only in 1902. It was used in one study of British physiologists William Bayliss and E. Starling.

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